Sustainable development in Sub Saharan Africa has been at the forefront of the United Nation’s agenda for the last two decades. However, one must question the effectiveness of the policies suggested by the UN, and can they actually be achieved. The bedrock of sustainable development lies in the Sustainable Development Goals and The Millennium Development goals.
We must recall the paramount importance of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and their success by the agreed date of 2015, it added to the credibility of the United Nations as a model of international cooperation toward inclusive and sustainable development. And Subsequently presented a mandate to introduce the Sustainable Development Goals, to be achieved by 2030. We must note the considerable progress that was made over the course of the MDG programme, and the continued progress under the SDG plan, In areas such as education, and poverty reduction, respectively, especially in the Sub Saharan Region. Despite flaws in the MDG programme, it still was successful in achieving most of the outlined aims. The Sustainable Development Goals are equally as ambitious and integrate communities, like those in Sub Sharan Africa, with UN and NGO efforts to radically improve the region. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. The SDGs aim to benefit Lowly Developed Countries (LDC’s) and Medium Developed Countries (MDCs) as well as the whole planet as well.
One of the largest problems that faces the continent of Africa specifically, South of the Sahara, is an over reliance on primary economic activities such as mining. The problem at hand is the lack of development in other various factors of industry such as secondary and tertiary process which is not limited to purely exporting raw materials. The Sustainable Development Goals have well intentioned merit however do not necessarily tackle the heart of the issue which is the dwindling economies of most of Sub Saharan countries. This is often down to the lack of strong government in sub Saharan Africa where often militant groups such as Boko Haram or oppressive dictatorships that control large areas of land or countries, which often prevents economies from growing because of ideological and violent divide. The United Nations have long provided peacekeeping support in the continent for a number of decades, often to no avail. In order for the Sustainable development goals to succeed, the economy of these countries first must be improved.
As this inequality lingers, the region must welcome the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NPAD) as a program of the African Union that embodies the visions and commitment of all African governments and peoples for peace and sustainable development; In addition to this, the establishment of national central points with governmental structures in harmony with African countries’ governments which would monitor the implementation of the New Partnership within each nation, serve as a repository of information for the United Nations’ supervision of the evolution of the partnership,’ assure national cooperation with regards to the New Partnership’s objectives and each nation to integrate the principles and objectives of the New Plan within their nations’ development programs, thus enabling each country to work according to their possibilities and needs would be a sensible programme to introduce. In order to reduce unemployment and emigration it would be necessary to encourage the involvement of the private sector with the implementation of the New Program as they would be key supporters of their nations’ goal in sustainable development. Additionally the need for African countries to further their commitment and/or efforts to establish to peace, security, democracy, and human rights as these are an essential basis for sustainable development and national and international cooperation; In the wake of COVID 19, and an inevitable world recession it is imperative for international community to continue to encourage private investments as well as humanitarian efforts.
There are many cases of Human Rights violations in Sub Sahara. Poverty and mass emigration are also some of the greatest inequalities in Sub Saharan Africa. By promoting sustainable development through the SDGs and the work done by the African union, it provides hope of what is to come. What is clear, is that for goals to bet met, it must have a strong economy also.